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Téranga Nature

Les oiseaux éthiopiens menacés d’extinction par le changement climatique

Les oiseaux éthiopiens menacés d’extinction par le changement climatique

Les résultats offrent la possibilité de prévoir le sort des espèces sauvages et les interventions pour leur conservation.

Une modélisation suggère que deux espèces d’oiseaux non apparentées, originaires d’Éthiopie, auront disparu d’ici 50 ans en raison de la hausse des températures mondiales. L’hirondelle à queue blanche, Hirundo megaensis, originaire de l’État éthiopien d’Oromia, et le corbin de Streseman d’Éthiopie, Zavattariornis stresemanni, que l’on trouve dans la région méridionale du pays, ont des habitats similaires constitués de savanes broussailleuses dégradées, de prairies ouvertes et d’arbres épars. Les scientifiques ont examiné les zones de restriction de leur aire de répartition en fonction de la hausse des températures et des précipitations en saison sèche.

D’ici 2050, le corbin de Stresemann devrait perdre 85 à 96 % de son aire de répartition et l’hirondelle 56 à 79 %. De 68 à 84 % de l’aire de répartition de l’hirondelle serait impropre à l’habitation et de 90 à 100 % de l’aire de répartition du corbin est sujette à des changements de température tels que le réchauffement associé à la sécheresse d’ici 2070.

“De telles diminutions laisseront des zones restantes qui seront probablement trop petites pour soutenir des populations viables”, écrivent Andrew Bladon et ses collègues, du Conservation Science Group de l’université de Cambridge, au Royaume-Uni, dans la revue PLOS ONE.

Les modèles des chercheurs n’ont trouvé aucun climat approprié dans un rayon de 150 à 400 km de l’aire de répartition actuelle, ce qui indique que l’espèce devrait se déplacer sur de grandes distances, dans de nouveaux environnements et dans des aires de répartition d’espèces auxquelles elle n’a jamais été exposée. Ils ont conclu que les oiseaux pouvaient être sauvés de l’extinction grâce à une migration assistée et à la reproduction en captivité, et que leur disparition prédictible dans la nature offrait l’occasion de tester la fiabilité des modèles permettant de prédire l’efficacité des interventions de conservation.

1.Bladon AJ, Donald PF, Collar NJ, Denge J, Dadacha G, Wondafrash M, et al. PLoS ONE 16(5): e0249633. (2021).


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