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Le Luxembourg “laboratoire” de la gratuité des transports

Le Luxembourg “laboratoire” de la gratuité des transports

Fini les abonnements et autres tickets: le Luxembourg est passé samedi à la gratuité des transports publics, une première mondiale pour tout un pays.

“Je suis contente, c’est une bonne mesure écologique. Ca facilite la vie de ne pas devoir acheter une carte (25 euros) chaque mois”, se félicite Anna Beirrao, en descendant d’un tram.

“Peut-être que de plus en plus de gens prendront les transports en commun. Personnellement, je n’utilise que ça et mon vélo”, espère Thierry, un autre passager.

“Ah c’est gratuit, je ne savais pas”, se réjouit Dominique, qui attend son train pour Nancy à la gare centrale de Luxembourg, le sac rempli de cartouches de cigarettes, moins chères dans le Grand-Duché. Cette gratuité sera répercutée sur le prix de son billet pour la France.

Les distributeurs de billets vont progressivement être retirés mais dans les gares, des points de vente destinés aux tickets internationaux et de première classe pour le train au Luxembourg (seule exception à la gratuité) vont rester en place.

A la gare centrale, ce samedi est le dernier jour d’ouverture du guichet.

Les agents doivent être reclassés ce qui n’empêche pas une certaine anxiété. “On ne sait pas encore ce qu’on va devenir. Tous les agents de mobilité des transports publics s’inquiètent. Ce n’est pas encore clair”, confie l’un d’eux, Yannick, à l’AFP.

Quelque 40% des ménages utilisent les transports publics au Luxembourg et la gratuité, vantée par le gouvernement comme “une mesure sociale”, représentera une économie estimée à environ 100 euros en moyenne par foyer et par an.

Pour le ministre chargé de la Mobilité, l’écologiste François Bausch, “il faut vraiment changer le système”.

“Partout dans le monde, on doit faire le même constat: la mobilité, telle qu’elle est organisée aujourd’hui, est un échec : des embouteillages partout, l’espace urbain ne fonctionne plus, au niveau rural les gens sont délaissés”, a-t-il expliqué samedi à l’AFP.

– “Laboratoire du 21e siècle” –

Les embouteillages sont fréquents dans ce petit pays prospère de 610.000 habitants où la voiture est reine.

Quelque 47% des déplacements professionnels y sont effectués par ce moyen.

Le bus n’est utilisé que pour 32% des déplacements pour se rendre au travail, devant le train (19%). A titre de comparaison, à Paris, près de 70% des travailleurs empruntent les transports publics.

Quelque 200.000 transfrontaliers rejoignent en outre quotidiennement le Luxembourg pour y travailler, dont 100.000 en provenance du Grand-Est. Les frontaliers représentent près d’un salarié sur deux.

Tout comme la population résidente, ils utilisent majoritairement la voiture.

Pour le ministre, qui rêve de faire du Luxembourg “un laboratoire de la mobilité du 21e siècle”, la gratuité “est d’abord un levier, pour provoquer le débat et améliorer la convivialité”.

Elle s’inscrit dans une stratégie globale qui prévoit des investissements massifs dans des projets destinés à améliorer les infrastructures de transports.

Pour le train, 3,2 milliards d’euros sont prévus pour accroître les capacités du réseau ferroviaire jusqu’en 2027, après 2,8 milliards d’euros entre 2008 et 2019.

Le gouvernement prévoit aussi de doubler le nombre de places dans les parking relais, d’adapter les lignes de bus, de fournir des informations en temps réel aux voyageurs, de doubler le nombre de points de recharge pour les véhicules électriques, d’améliorer les pistes cyclables, d’étendre le réseau de tramway et d’utiliser une troisième voie sur les autoroutes, dédiée au covoiturage.

Ce plan ne fait pas pour autant l’unanimité.

“On a investi durant des années dans la construction de routes. Le gouvernement fait des efforts, mais on a un énorme retard en ce qui concerne le développement des transports en commun”, explique Blanche Weber, présidente du Mouvement écologique luxembourgeois, une association environnementale.

Pour cette responsable, “l’amélioration de l’offre” est plus importante que la gratuité.

© 2020 AFP

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