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Mayotte : après les séismes de 2018, un nouveau volcan sous-marin est né au large de l’île

Mayotte : après les séismes de 2018, un nouveau volcan sous-marin est né au large de l’île

Les séismes de 2018 à Mayotte ont entraîné l’apparition d’un nouveau volcan sous-marin.

Alors que des séismes ont lieu dans l’archipel de Mayotte depuis 2018, une étude menée conjointement par des scientifiques de l’IPGP (Institut de physique du globe de Paris), de l’Ifremer (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer), du CNRS et du BRGM (Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières), a démontré qu’il s’agissait là de la “plus importante éruption sous-marine” jamais documentée.

Les résultats de l’étude, qui ont été publiés fin août dans la revue Nature Geoscience, mettent en avant le fait que cette éruption a donné naissance à un nouveau volcan sous-marin au large de la côte orientale de l’île de Mayotte.

Une activité sismique hors du commun

Depuis plus de trois ans, l’île de Mayotte, située entre la côte orientale de l’Afrique et la pointe nord de Madagascar, connaît une activité sismique dite “en essaims” : plusieurs séismes, d’intensité variable, ont lieu dans une zone précise, sur des durées plus ou moins longues. Tout a commencé avec une première secousse détectée le 10 mai 2018. Le 15 mai 2018, le plus puissant séisme jamais enregistré dans l’archipel des Comores a été enregistré, d’une magnitude de 5,8.

Un nouveau volcan impressionnant

Cette activité hors normes a titillé la curiosité des scientifiques, qui ont décidé de mener en 2019 une expédition océanographique, connue sous le nom de MAYOBS 1. C’est lors de cette campagne qu’ils ont découvert une structure volcanique sous-marine à 820 mètres du fond marin, à une cinquantaine de kilomètres au large de Mayotte.

Fait particulier : ce “nouvel édifice volcanique” (NVE) de 5 mètres cube, comme l’appellent les chercheurs, n’existait pas avant le séisme qui a secoué l’île en mai 2018. Selon eux, cette formation est due à un réservoir de magma situé dans les profondeurs de l’asthénosphère, la couche de manteau fondu qui se trouve juste en dessous de la lithosphère de la Terre. Un observatoire mis en place après la découverte de ce nouveau volcan permet de surveiller en temps réel l’activité sismique.


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