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Téranga Nature

Un vélo et un vieux frigo pour éclairer un village au Malawi

Un vélo et un vieux frigo pour éclairer un village au Malawi

Le Malawi, petit pays enclavé d’Afrique australe, est un des plus pauvres de la planète. Seulement 11% de la population est raccordée à l’électricité, et seulement 4% en milieu rural, selon les ONG. Et dans certains endroits comme celui-ci, une fois le soleil couché, toute activité cesse.

De retour dans son village il y a plusieurs années, après des études, Colrerd Nkosi, aujourd’hui âgé de 38 ans, n’a pas pu se résoudre à retourner à un quotidien sans électricité.

Il réalise bientôt que la rivière Kasangazi coule devant sa maison avec juste assez de force pour pousser les pédales de son vélo. Sans formation particulière au métier d’électricien, il bricole une dynamo et réussit à tirer du courant jusqu’à sa maison.

Quand les habitants du village se mettent à débarquer chez lui en nombre pour recharger leurs téléphones, il se dit qu’il doit pousser le projet plus loin.

En déviant l’eau de la rivière, il réussit à créer une petite chute d’eau. “J’ai fabriqué une turbine hydroélectrique avec un compresseur de réfrigérateur, ça a fournit de l’électricité à six maisons”, raconte-t-il à l’AFP, vêtu d’un bleu de travail.

Aujourd’hui, le village de Yobe Nkosi est alimenté grâce à sa petite centrale électrique artisanale, installée un peu à l’écart du village et qu’il a entre-temps boostée avec le moteur d’un égreneur à maïs. Et son école est la seule, sur les 17 que comptes la région, à être éclairée.

L’électricité est transportée sur deux km par des fils électriques rudimentaires en acier, suspendus à des troncs d’arbre qui font office de poteaux électriques.

Les usagers paient un peu plus d’un euro par mois: “L’électricité est pratiquement gratuite”, explique Colrerd Nkosi.

Les contributions ne couvrent même pas les frais d’entretien et il en est de sa poche, mais même si ça ne rapporte rien, l’ingénieur autodidacte compte brancher les autres villages et les écoles alentour.

“Les gens ne couperont plus les arbres et cesseront d’utiliser du charbon de bois”, espère-t-il. Et les élèves “auront plus de temps pour étudier”.

Son invention a attiré l’attention des autorités locales pour apporter l’électricité aux 18.000 administrés de la zone. Le ministère de l’Energie a promis d’aider à “construire des lignes électriques sûres et fiables”.

De l’autre côté de la vallée, une clameur s’élève de la maison de son cousin, Satiel Nkosi. À l’intérieur, la famille s’agite autour d’une petite télévision blanche. Les plus âgés s’amusent à faire des commentaires osés en regardant une comédie zambienne, au grand dam des plus jeunes.

“Nous sommes reconnaissants à Colrerd de nous avoir apporté l’électricité. Les mots ne suffisent pas à dire combien cela a changé ma vie, je peux faire tellement de choses maintenant”, dit Satiel Nkosi.

© 2021 AFP

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