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L’ONU ADOPTE DEUX RÉSOLUTIONS MAJEURES POUR LE CLIMAT

L’ONU ADOPTE DEUX RÉSOLUTIONS MAJEURES POUR LE CLIMAT

À moins d’un mois de la COP26, le Conseil des droits de l’Homme de l’ONU reconnaît, pour la première fois, le droit à un environnement “propre, sain et durable” comme un droit fondamental. Il crée également un poste de rapporteur sur les droits de l’Homme face aux conséquences du changement climatique.

Vendredi 8 octobre, le Conseil des droits de l’Homme des Nations-Unies a pris deux mesures majeures pour le climat. Il a adopté une résolution reconnaissant le droit à un environnement “sûr, propre, sain et durable” pour tous. Il crée également un nouveau poste, celui de rapporteur pour la protection des droits humains face au changement climatique.

Il s’agit d'”un moment historique pour l’action climatique”, a affirmé l’ambassadeur du Panama, Juan Castillero, tandis que la cheffe de la délégation de l’UE auprès de l’ONU à Genève, l’ambassadrice Lotte Knudsen, a estimé qu’il s’agissait d'”un signal fort, en particulier en vue de prochaines conférences des Nations unies sur le changement climatique (COP26)“. “C’est le début d’une nouvelle ère pour une politique environnementale et climatique fondée sur la protection des droits !”, s’est également réjouie l’association Notre affaire à tous,à l’origine de l’Affaire du siècle en France

La Chine, l’Inde, le Japon et la Russie parmi les réfractaires

La première résolution, portée par le Costa Rica, les Maldives, le Maroc, la Slovénie et la Suisse, et soutenue par plusieurs pays européens, a été adoptée à une large majorité. Le texte affirme que “l’exercice du droit de bénéficier d’un environnement propre, sain et durable est un élément important de la jouissance des droits de l’homme“. Le Conseil engage ainsi les États “à renforcer leurs capacités en matière de protection de l’environnement et à adopter des politiques visant à permettre l’exercice du droit à un environnement sûr, propre, sain et durable, y compris en ce qui concerne la biodiversité et les écosystèmes“. 

Par ailleurs, le Conseil a adopté une seconde résolution – proposée par l’Union européenne, les îles Marshall, les Bahamas, les Fidji, Panama, le Paraguay et le Soudan – visant à nommer, pour une période de trois ans, un rapporteur spécial sur la promotion et la protection des droits de l’Homme dans le contexte des changements climatiques. Son mandat consistera à étudier les effets néfastes des changements climatiques sur les droits humains, recenser les problèmes que rencontrent les États, synthétiser les connaissances et les bonnes pratiques et faire des recommandations tous les ans au Conseil.

Parmi les pays qui se sont abstenus, on compte l’Inde, le Japon, la Chine ou encore la Russie, celle-ci ayant même voté contre la création du poste de rapporteur. Alors que la COP26 sur le climat se tient dans moins d’un mois à Glasgow, au Royaume-Uni, pour dresser le bilan des ambitions climatiques de chaque État membre, ces positions interrogent sur le succès des négociations et les éventuels blocages qui pourraient survenir. L’Inde et la Chine n’ont toujours pas déposé leurs nouvelles “contributions déterminées au niveau national” (NDC en anglais) tandis que celles du Japon et de la Russie marquent un statu quo voire un recul.

NVTC

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