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Téranga Nature

LES 20 PLUS GROSSES ENTREPRISES DE VIANDE ET DU LAIT ÉMETTENT AUTANT DE CO2 QUE L’ALLEMAGNE

LES 20 PLUS GROSSES ENTREPRISES DE VIANDE ET DU LAIT ÉMETTENT AUTANT DE CO2 QUE L’ALLEMAGNE

932 millions de tonnes de CO2. Cela correspond aux émissions des vingt plus grosses entreprises mondiales de la viande et du lait, sur une année seulement. L’industrie, sous pression des ONG et des investisseurs, tente de montrer patte verte mais face à l’augmentation de la consommation, difficile de résister. 

C’est un remarquable travail de synthèse que viennent de publier la Fondation Heinrich-Böll et les Amis de la Terre dans une nouvelle étude baptisée l’Atlas de la viande. Le think tank et l’ONG ont passé au scanner la production et la consommation de viande dans le monde. Et les chiffres sont éloquents. Aujourd’hui, les 20 plus grandes entreprises de viande et de produits laitiers émettent 932 millions de tonnes d’émissions d’équivalents CO2 par an, c’est autant que les émissions totales d’un pays comme l’Allemagne.

Parmi les plus gros émetteurs se trouve, largement en tête, la multinationale brésilienne JBS. Le plus grand groupe de transformation de viande au monde est responsable d’un quart des émissions. Sur la deuxième place du podium se situe l’américaine Tyson, suivie par sa compatriote Cargill. Les émissions de ces trois géants, additionnés à celles de Dairy Farmers of America et Fonterra produisent plus d’émissions combinées par an que les grandes majors pétrolières comme Exxon, Shell ou BP. Or aujourd’hui “pas un seul gouvernement n’exige que les producteurs de viande documentent leurs émissions ou normalisent leurs objectifs de réduction des émissions afin de permettre des comparaisons au sein du secteur”, notent les auteurs de l’étude. 

75 milliards d’animaux abattus chaque année 

Et la situation pourrait encore empirer car la consommation de viande elle, ne cesse d’augmenter. L’ONU estime déjà que l’élevage représente 14,5 % des émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre. 75 milliards d’animaux sont abattus chaque année pour produire 325 millions de tonnes de viande, l’OCDE prévoyant une augmentation de 40 millions de tonnes d’ici 2029. “On est loin de respecter les limites de notre planète“, a déclaré Christine Chemnitz, co-autrice de l’étude, lors d’une conférence de presse. 

En plus des émissions du bétail, le rapport souligne l’impact environnemental croissant des ressources connexes telles que le soja utilisé pour l’alimentation animale. Christine Chemnitz et son équipe ont calculé que 1,2 million de kilomètres carrés – une superficie trois fois plus grande que l’Allemagne – sont déjà consacrés à la culture du soja, dont plus de 90 % sont utilisés pour nourrir le bétail. Cette demande croissante entraîne une hausse déforestation et menace la biodiversité alors que les terres sont défrichées pour faire place aux cultures.

Sur ce sujet, le numéro un mondial de la viande, est régulièrement pointé du doigt, et pas seulement pas les ONG. En 2020, le fonds d’investissement Nordea Asset Management a ainsi annoncé se retirer du capital de l’entreprise, engluée dans des scandales à répétition. Lâché par ses investisseurs, JBS a dégainé un plan anti-déforestation en cinq ans et promis d’atteindre l’objectif zéro émission nette d’ici 2040. Une échéance à long terme qui ne répond pas à l’urgence de la situation, estiment les ONG. 

AFP

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