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Téranga Nature

L’accès à un environnement sain est déclaré droit de l’homme

L’accès à un environnement sain est déclaré droit de l’homme

Le Conseil des droits de l’homme des Nations Unies a reconnu ce vendredi, pour la première fois, que disposer d’un environnement propre, sain et durable est un droit humain.

Dans sa résolution 48/13, le Conseil a appelé les États du monde entier à travailler ensemble, et avec d’autres partenaires, pour mettre en œuvre ce droit nouvellement reconnu.

Le texte, proposé par le Costa Rica, les Maldives, le Maroc, la Slovénie et la Suisse, a été adopté par 43 voix pour et 4 abstentions – de la Russie, de l’Inde, de la Chine et du Japon.

Dans le même temps, par le biais d’une deuxième résolution (48/14), le Conseil a également renforcé son attention sur les impacts du changement climatique sur les droits de l’homme en créant un Rapporteur spécial spécifiquement dédié à cette question.

Une action audacieuse

Dans une déclaration, la Haut-Commissaire des Nations Unies aux droits de l’homme, Michelle Bachelet, a appelé les États membres à prendre des mesures audacieuses pour donner rapidement et réellement effet au droit à un environnement sain.

Mme Bachelet a déclaré que, après avoir longtemps appelé à une telle mesure, elle a jugé gratifiant que la décision « reconnaisse clairement la dégradation de l’environnement et le changement climatique comme des crises interconnectées en matière de droits de l’homme ».

« Des mesures audacieuses sont maintenant nécessaires pour que cette résolution sur le droit à un environnement sain serve de tremplin pour faire pression en faveur de politiques économiques, sociales et environnementales transformatrices qui protégeront les personnes et la nature », a-t-elle ajouté.

Au début de la session actuelle du Conseil des droits de l’homme, la Haut-Commissaire a décrit la triple menace planétaire du changement climatique, de la pollution et de la perte de la nature comme le plus grand défi de notre époque en matière de droits humains.

La nouvelle résolution reconnaît les dommages infligés par le changement climatique et la destruction de l’environnement à des millions de personnes dans le monde. Elle souligne également que les segments les plus vulnérables de la population sont plus durement touchés.

La question va maintenant être soumise à l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies à New York, pour un examen plus approfondi.

Des efforts de plusieurs décennies

Après l’adoption de la résolution, Michelle Bachelet a rendu hommage aux efforts déployés par un large éventail d’organisations de la société civile, notamment des groupes de jeunes, des institutions nationales des droits de l’homme, des organisations de populations autochtones, des entreprises et bien d’autres.

La Haut-Commissaire a également noté qu’un nombre sans précédent de défenseurs des droits de l’homme dans le domaine de l’environnement avaient été tués l’année dernière, exhortant les États membres à prendre des mesures fermes pour les protéger et leur donner les moyens d’agir.

« Nous devons nous appuyer sur cet élan pour dépasser la fausse séparation entre l’action environnementale et la protection des droits de l’homme. Il n’est que trop clair qu’aucun des deux objectifs ne peut être atteint sans l’autre », a-t-elle déclaré.

L’ambassadrice du Costa Rica, Catalina Devandas Aguilar, l’un des coauteurs de la résolution, a déclaré que la décision « enverra un message puissant aux communautés du monde entier qui luttent contre les difficultés liées au climat : elles ne sont pas seules ». 

Cette décision intervient quelques semaines avant le sommet crucial des Nations Unies sur le changement climatique, la COP26, qui se tiendra début novembre à Glasgow. 

Selon l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS), 24 % de tous les décès dans le monde, soit environ 13,7 millions de décès par an, sont liés à l’environnement, en raison de risques tels que la pollution atmosphérique et l’exposition aux produits chimiques.

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