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Téranga Nature

Comment l’adaptation aux événements climatiques extrêmes peut changer la face de la ville

Comment l’adaptation aux événements climatiques extrêmes peut changer la face de la ville

Vagues de chaleur, inondations, vent violent: impossible d’ignorer les conséquences du dérèglement climatique, qui s’expriment particulièrement en ville et demandent des aménagements pour en réduire la portée.

“On a proposé un projet en Inde où tout est pensé contre les risques de fortes moussons”: lors de chaque projet, architectes et urbanistes font désormais davantage attention à l’éventualité de phénomènes climatiques extrêmes. Avec son “lac saisonnier” et la promesse d’un “meilleur écoulement de l’eau” entre les différents sites du campus universitaire de la ville Hyderabad, la réponse au risque d’inondation devient “un moteur du projet” encore en compétition, décrit Brice Piechaczyk, architecte au cabinet Enia.


“Après la première vague de chaleur, en 2017, nous avons travaillé sur le réseau d’eau, afin de limiter le gaspillage qu’on avait identifié. Cette année [en raison notamment de l’anticyclone Lucifer], il y avait beaucoup d’incendies dans la région. Nous sommes en train de mettre en place un système de surveillance des forêts par drones et satellites”, explique à l’AFP Virginia Raggi, la maire de Rome.

Les épisodes caniculaires sont accentués en ville, où l’urbanisme et la concentration d’immeubles créé parfois des îlots de chaleur et augmente encore la température dans les hypercentres. “Il faut dé-imperméabiliser la ville”, explique l’architecte-urbaniste Ariella Masboungi, qui cite notamment la conception de “jardins de poche”, pour remplacer le bitume afin de protéger de la chaleur et de faciliter l’écoulement de l’eau.

Des savoir-faire oubliés

L’adaptation de la ville passe d’abord par des aménagements sur l’existant plutôt que par de nouvelles constructions. “On peut régénérer les villes depuis les zones délaissées. Il y a des espaces à l’abandon comme d’anciennes usines, écoles, bureaux… Nous avons les moyens de redéfinir leurs usages”, décrit Mme Raggi, qui vise notamment à relier les différents parcs et espaces verts de la capitale italienne pour créer un “Anello Verde” (bague verte).

L’effort d’adaptation des bâtiments est notamment valable pour “ceux construits entre l’après seconde guerre mondiale” et “les premières règlementations thermiques”, dans les années 1970 puis 2000 en France, estime Lois Moulas, directeur de l’Observatoire de l’immobilier durable.

D’anciennes considérations ont été “oubliées”, comme la “bio-conception” des villes, argumente également Mme Masboungi. “La ville de Gênes est construite avec des couloirs de vent, qui permet de ne pas avoir trop chaud, même par 40 degrés”, illustre-t-elle. “On savait faire, on doit retrouver” ces conceptions assure l’urbaniste.

Ces changements amènent à mieux prendre en compte la région et les conditions locales des constructions. “Les Anciens construisaient différemment en Bretagne qu’en Côte d’Azur. Aujourd’hui on ne peut plus ignorer l’orientation des bâtiments, des ouvertures en fonction du soleil ou du vent”, estime Abbès Tahir, directeur général délégué d’Arte Charpentier.   

Des analyses prédictives pour accompagner les architectes

D’autant que les architectes peuvent désormais s’appuyer sur des données et des projections plus fines, afin de mieux identifier les risques et les impacts des solutions envisagées. L’observatoire de l’immobilier durable a par exemple lancé le programme Bat-Adapt, composé notamment d’une cartographie d’analyse des risques climatiques pour les bâtiments, comme les vagues de chaleur, les sécheresses, le retrait-gonflement des argiles ou encore les inondations. Cette cartographie est en libre accès. Limité pour l’instant au territoire français métropolitain, la carte sera à l’échelle européenne à terme, l’OID étant en phase de collecte des données.

“Les architectes doivent travailler beaucoup plus étroitement avec le monde scientifique et de l’ingénierie pour développer les analyses prédictives. Le coeur de notre métier est d’être créatif, mais nous devons mettre cette créativité à l’épreuve de la science”, pense M. Piechaczyk. “Mais nos bâtiments doivent aussi être plus agiles. Il faut garder en tête qu’ils doivent pouvoir être adaptés et rénovés plus facilement”, pour mieux répondre aux conséquences climatiques pas encore anticipées et encourager leur reconversion, conclut-il.

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